Hardness in water is caused by certain salts. The major hardening ions are calcium (Ca²+), magnesium (Mg²+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). These ions or minerals form lime scale in pipes and installations of drinking water and process water systems.
Water softeners offer a water purifying solution for hard water and ensure scale removal.
An alternative for water softeners is dosing antiscalant products. By adding these products, the ions remain in the water, but the added chemicals avoid the formation of scale. These antiscalant products are often applied in the pre-treatment of RO systems.
PCA can help you with this technology, both in design and construction of the installation.